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Study Guide - Criminological Theory

This is a study guide for the Overview and Reading Quizzes in the Criminological Theory course.

Published onJan 11, 2024
Study Guide - Criminological Theory
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Section 1. Introduction to Course

OVERVIEW

  •  True or false (according to the overview): According to the overview, everyone has the same definition of “theory”?

  • According to the overview, theory refers to what in this class?

  • According to the overview, what words are synonymous with “theory” as used in this class? 

  • According to the overview, what makes theories “scientific”? 

  • True or false (according to the overview): In truth, criminological theories always focus on empirical phenomena. 

  • According to the overview, is it more accurate to suggest that theories are facts or informed speculation? 

  • According to the overview, what makes scientific theories different from religious or philosophical ones? 

  • What is the dependent variable in the following statement: Consuming more calories leads to more weight, but weight is decreased by running more. 

  • According to the overview, what are the criteria used to judge whether a theory is better (than another theory)? 

  • True or false (according to the overview): According to the overview, everyone has the same definition of “criminological”? 

  • True or false (according to the overview): “Criminological theory” and “criminology” are synonymous in this course. 

  • True or false (according to the overview): Criminological theories are about what affects crime, not law, policing, courts, or corrections. 

  • According to the overview, what are examples of the types of questions addressed by community-level theories of crime? 

  • According to the overview, what are examples of the types of questions addressed by individual-level theories of crime? 

  • According to the overview, what are examples of the types of questions addressed by situational-level theories of crime? 

  • True or false (according to the overview): A discipline is a minor branch of knowledge. 

  • According to the overview, what areas of study, such as economics, are disciplines? 

  • True or false (according to the overview): Criminology is a field of study, not a discipline. 

  • True or false (according to the overview): This course examines almost every criminological theory. 

  • According to the overview (and syllabus), this course involves what kinds of assignments? In other words, what work is involved in this course? 

  • According to the overview, theories are like people in what ways?

  • According to the overview, how is “classic” theory different from “contemporary” theory? 

  • According to the overview, who is an example of criminology’s “great-grandparents”? 

  • According to the overview, who is an example of criminology’s “grandparents”? 

  • According to the overview, who is an example of criminology’s “parents”? 

  • According to the overview, Theorist Videos were collected as part of what project? 

  • According to the overview, what is the best test of whether someone really understands a theory? 

SYLLABUS

  • According to the syllabus’ course objectives, students should be able to do what by the end of the course?

  • True or false (according to the syllabus): Sway is a software program like PowerPoint, but worse.

  •  True or false (according to the syllabus): There is a quiz over every Sway Overview, not just the first one.

  •  According to the syllabus, if in the Course Outline there’s an asterisk (*) next to a reading, then you may only be able to access it how?

  •  According to the syllabus, the average score across overview and reading quizzes is worth what percent of the final grade?

  •  According to the syllabus, students get how many “attempts” to complete each overview and reading quiz?

  •  True or false (according to the syllabus): The theorist videos consist of the course instructor talking about stuff.

  •  According to the syllabus, students get how long to complete each reading quiz?

  •  True or false (according to the syllabus): Reading quizzes and video theorist quizzes are timed in order to make sure students read and otherwise study the material before taking the quizzes.

  •  According to the syllabus, the average score across theorist video quizzes is worth what percent of the final grade?

  •  According to the syllabus, students get how many “attempts” to complete each theorist video quiz?

  •  According to the syllabus, students get how long to complete each theorist video quiz?

  •  For each discussion post, students do what?

  •  According to the syllabus, the average score across theorist video quizzes is worth what percent of the final grade?

  •  True or false (according to the syllabus): Technology problems are an acceptable excuse for late work.

  •  True or false (according to the syllabus): The Course Outline lists all the due dates.

  •  True or false (according to the syllabus): There is a study guide for the readings and theorist videos.

WIKIPEDIA. SCIENTIFIC THEORY

  •  According to the Wikipedia entry on “Scientific Theory,” what is the definition of “scientific theory?

  •  According to the Wikipedia entry on “Scientific Theory,” how is theory “as used in everyday non-scientific speech” different from that as used in science?

  •  True or false (according to the Wikipedia entry on “Scientific Theory”): Scientific theories are not falsifiable.

  •  According to the Wikipedia entry on “Scientific Theory,” scientists use theories for what two purposes? (Hint: in the document, the answer is found in a sentence with the word “foundation.”)

  •  True or false (according to the Wikipedia entry on “Scientific Theory”): Theories are facts.

  •  True or false (according to the Wikipedia entry on “Scientific Theory”): A theory that makes no observable predictions is not a scientific theory.

  •  According to the Wikipedia entry on “Scientific Theory,” the scientific method involves what?

  •  True or false (according to the Wikipedia entry on “Scientific Theory”): Theories have to be perfectly accurate to be scientifically useful.

  •  According to the Wikipedia entry on “Scientific Theory,” if experimental results are contrary to a theory’s predictions, what should scientists first do?

  •  According to the Wikipedia entry on “Scientific Theory,” what does the “unification of theories” refer to?

  •  According to the Wikipedia entry on “Scientific Theory,” scientific laws and theories are different in what way(s)?

  •  True or false (according to the Wikipedia entry on “Scientific Theory”): Scientific theories are rudimentary ideas that will eventually graduate into scientific laws when enough data and evidence have been accumulated.

  •  According to the Wikipedia entry on “Scientific Theory,” what is a part of a theory accepted without evidence?

 WIKIPEDIA. CRIMINOLOGY

  •  According to the Wikipedia entry on “Criminology,” the term criminology dates back to what year?

  •  According to the Wikipedia entry on “Criminology,” the first criminologists were what?

  •  According to the Wikipedia entry on “Criminology,” what were the three main schools of thought in early criminological theory spanning the period from the mid-18th century to the mid-20th century?

  •  According to the Wikipedia entry on “Criminology,” what were the main arguments of the classical school?

  •  According to the Wikipedia entry on “Criminology,” the positivist school presumes that criminal behavior is caused by what?

  •  According to the Wikipedia entry on “Criminology,” positivism can be broken up into what three segments?

  •  According to the Wikipedia entry on “Criminology,” who is regarded as the father of criminology?

  •  According to the Wikipedia entry on “Criminology,” Lombroso’s criminal anthropology suggested that what physiological traits indicated atavistic criminal tendencies?

  •  According to the Wikipedia entry on “Criminology,” sociological positivism suggests that what societal factors can predispose people to crime?

  •  According to the Wikipedia entry on “Criminology,” who viewed crime as an inevitable aspect of society?

  •  According to the Wikipedia entry on “Criminology,” Chicago school sociologists adopted what approach to studying cities?

  •  According to the Wikipedia entry on “Criminology,” know the key aspects of the following theories:

    • Social disorganization

    • Strain

    • Subcultural

    • Control

    • Labeling

    • Routine activity

    • Biosocial

    • Marxist

 JEFFREY. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF CRIMINOLOGY

  •  According to Jeffrey’s article, 20th century criminology is a product of the theories of what centuries?

  •  In the Jeffrey article, what is the major the major thesis?

  •  According to Jeffrey’s article, criminology involves what three types of problems?

  •  True or false (according to Jeffrey’s article): There is only one good way to classify theories and theorists.

  •  According to Jeffrey’s article, the Classical School developed in the 18th century in an attempt to do what?

  •  According to Jeffrey’s article, the Positivist School developed in the 19th century in an attempt to do what?

  •  According to Jeffrey’s article, how do the Classical School and Positivist School differ in their orientation to the definition of crime?

  •  According to Jeffrey’s article, does the Classical School or Positivist School dominate American criminological thinking?

  •  True or false (according to Jeffrey’s article): There is agreement in criminology as to “what is crime?”

  •  According to Jeffrey’s article, what is the most common definition of crime by the sociological school?

  •  True or false (according to Jeffrey’s article): Crime and criminals are commonly confused in criminology.

  •  True or false (according to Jeffrey’s article): Why people behave as they do and why the behavior is regarded as criminal are effectively the same problems requiring similar types of explanations.

  •  According to Jeffrey’s article, if we defined crime as the violation of law, then we also must state what?

  •  True or false (according to Jeffrey’s article): The German school of sociology does not distinguish what “is” from what “ought to be” (i.e., moral and ethical issues)

  •  True or false (according to Jeffrey’s article): Science can determine the ultimate values of society.

  •  According to Jeffrey’s article, who is generally credited with shifting the criminologist’s attention from the crime to the criminal?

  •  According to Jeffrey’s article, the two major explanations of criminal behavior are biological, psychiatric (i.e., psychological), or sociological?

  •  According to Jeffrey’s article, did the Classical School or Positivist School base the study of criminal behavior on scientific determinism (not free will)?

  •  According to Jeffrey’s article, in practice, does criminal law mostly treat criminal acts as the result of individual’s free will or determined by factors external to individuals?

  •  According to Jeffrey’s article, did the Classical School or Positivist School reject the doctrine of “no punishment without a law”?

  •  According to Jeffrey’s article, does the statement “punishment must fit the criminal” more closely reflect the Classical School or Positivist School?

  •  According to Jeffrey’s article, is the Classical School or Positivist School more interested in crime than the criminal?

DOOLEY. EMERGENCE OF CONTEMPORARY CRIMINOLOGY

  •  According to Dooley’s article, historical accounts of the field have taken what three approaches (i.e., ways)?

  •  In Dooley’s article, he writes of oral accounts, “These introspective accounts offer insights into individual biographies and how they relate to the development of specific careers.” He then goes on to state a limitation of these accounts. What is that limitation?

  •  For Dooley’s article, data is analyzed from interviews with how many scholars?

  •  In Dooley’s article, there are four subject areas, or themes, that guided the interviews. What are those four themes?

  •  True or false (according to Dooley’s article): When asked about what, if anything, prompted an interest in deviance and criminality, the majority of respondents referenced an account informed by either personal relationships, early life experiences, or an effort toward achieving a measure of justice through their professional efforts.

  •  In Dooley’s article, he writes, “The majority of respondents accounted for their introduction to the field and the development of their ideas a resulting from a more detached exploration of ideas.” He then writes that there were three orientations to doing so. What are they?

  •  In Dooley’s article, he asks, “So what is to be learned from their collective experience?” True or false: The answer he poses is that how the field organizes itself professionally has no impact on its development.

  •  In Dooley’s article, he suggests an emphasis on two components when designing criminology and criminal justice curricula. What are those two components?

Section 2. Deterrence / Rational Choice

Overview

  • According to the overview, theory is a statement about what?

  •  According to the overview, scientific theory is distinguished by its focus on what kind of “somethings”?
    According to the overview, something is empirical if you can do what to it?

  •  According to the overview, is the “something” that affects something else the independent or dependent variable?

  •  According to the overview, is the “something” affected by something else the independent or dependent variable?

  •  According to the overview, a theory is better if it is more valid and more of what else?

  •  According to the overview, is crime the independent or dependent variable in criminological theory?

  •  True or false (according to the overview): The vast majority of criminological theories make statements about why communities, individuals, and situations are more likely to have or commit crime.

  •  True or false (according to the overview): Criminological theories only focus on empirical somethings.

  •  True or false (according to the overview): Criminology is a discipline.

  •  According to the overview, the current section of the course focuses on which discipline(s)?

  •  True or false (according to the overview): Bentham argues that people do things to gain pleasure and gain pain.

  •  According to the overview, what words are synonymous with benefit?

  •  According to the overview, what words are synonymous with cost?

  •  According to the overview, what are the potential sources of good and bad stuff that people experience?

  •  According to the overview, deterrence is basically what?

  •  According to the overview, the government uses what to deter?

  •  True or false (according to the overview): Theories and crime control methods are only good enough if they are perfect.

  •  According to the overview, does Bentham, Gibbs, or Clarke and Cornish focus on deterrence in specific ways rather than big ways?

  •  According to the overview, what is/are the dependent variable of the theories examined in this section?

  •  According to the overview, what is/are the independent variable of the theories examined in this section?

  •  According to the overview, people commit more crime is doing so has what?

  •  True or false (according to the overview): Rational choice theory is only used to at the community- and individual-level of analysis.

 BENTHAM. PRINCIPLES OF MORALS & LEGISLATION

  •  Note: thought the following say “According to Bentham,” the wording for the quiz questions will actually come from the summaries I made.

  •  According to Bentham, people act based on what?

  •  According to Bentham’s principle of utility, an action is better to the extent it increases what of an actor?

  •  According to Bentham, utility refers to what?

  •  True or false (according to Bentham): A community is a real thing, not fictitious.

  •  According to Bentham, a government action has utility if it does what?

  •  According to Bentham, what makes a person partisan to the principle of utility?

  •  According to Bentham, if an action conforms to the principle of utility, then you can say what of it?

  •  True or false (according to Bentham): His theory of utility can be tested.

  •  According to Bentham, laws should be solely made and enforced to do what?

  •  Know the definitions of the following types of sanctions (according to Bentham):

    • Physical sanction

    • Political sanction

    • Moral sanction

    • Religious sanction

  •  True or false (according to Bentham): Government officials should only concern themselves with political sanctions, not the other types.

  •  According to Bentham, for any given person, good and bad stuff varies in what four ways?

  •  According to Bentham, figuring the utility of an act that affects the community involves quantifying, adding, and comparing the resultant good stuff with the bad stuff. What makes an act good?

  •  According to Bentham, what are the four goals of legal punishment that relate to the principle of utility?

  •  True or false (according to Bentham): If the value of committing a crime is greater than the value of punishment, the offender will not commit the crime.

  •  True or false (according to Bentham): It is a certainty that punishment will prevent an offense.

  •  True or false (according to Bentham): To prevent offenses that cause more bad stuff relative to other offenses [see second goal], the worse offenses should have a greater value of punishment than do less bad offenses.

  •  True or false (according to Bentham): To prevent offenders from doing more bad stuff than needed during any given offense, each part should have its own punishment, and the worse parts should have a equal value of punishment as the less bad parts.

  •  True or false (according to Bentham): Everyone who commits a particular crime should be punished the exact same way.

  •  According to Bentham, because the good stuff of offenses is more certain and swift, is it most practical to make punishment more certain, swift, and/or severe?

  •  True or false (according to Bentham): Every crime should be treated as a single act. Thus, offenders should not be punished as though they committed it many times before without being punished.

  •  True or false (according to Bentham): Laws and prescribed punishments should be as specific as possible.

 GIBBS. CRIME, PUNISHMENT, AND DETERRENCE

  • According to Gibbs, after what period (i.e., years) did academics, especially sociologists, regain interest in deterrence?

  •  How does Gibbs first define deterrence?

  •  According to Gibbs, the term “punishment” is ambiguous for what reason?

  •  True or false (according to Gibbs): Deterrence is observable because it is possible to see someone omitting an act because of the perceived risk and fear of punishment.

  •  Know the definition of following types of deterrence, according to Gibbs:

  • Specific deterrence

  • General deterrence

  •  According to Gibbs, the deterrence doctrine is the legacy of what two major figures in moral philosophy?

  •  According to Gibbs, the deterrence doctrine can be reduced to what one fairly simple statement (identified in the chapter as generalization 1)?

  •  True or false (according to Gibbs): The assertion that the celerity, certainty, and severity of punishment deters crime is directly testable.

  •  According to Gibbs, prescribed or “threatened” punishments do not deter individuals unless they do what?

  •  According to Gibbs, is a $2,000 fine or 30 days in jail a more severe punishment, scientifically speaking?

  •  True or false (according to Gibbs): If punishments do not deter crime, there is no reason to punish.

  •  True or false (according to Gibbs): The positions taken in debates over the deterrence doctrine commonly reflect value judgments pertaining to punishment, not a concern with its empirical validity.

  •  According to Gibbs, what amount of evidence is likely to resolve the debate over deterrence in the context of penal policy?

  •  True or false: Gibbs believes that coercion is the ultimate basis of social control in all societies.

  •  True or false (according to Gibbs): Deterrence is the only possible preventative consequence of punishment.

 CLARKE & CORNISH. MODELING OFFENDERS’ DECISIONS

  • According to Clarke and Cornish, deviancy theories developed in the 1960s are relevant to their article because they rejected what and emphasized what?

  •  According to Clarke and Cornish, deviancy theories have limited value for crime control for what three reasons?

  •  According to Clarke and Cornish, “classical” views about crime emphasize what?

  •  According to Clarke and Cornish, the economic approaches to criminal behavior argue that criminals and noncriminals have what in common?

  •  According to Clarke and Cornish, how are new economic formulations different from the classical economic and criminological theories?

  •  rue or false: According to Clarke and Cornish, “bounded rationality” refers to individuals’ use of judgmental heuristics that make them act slowly when completing complex tasks

  •  According to Clarke and Cornish, have most criminological theorists been preoccupied with explaining involvement in crime of particular individuals or the occurrence of criminal events?

  •  According to Clarke and Cornish, what are the three stages of criminal involvement?

  •  According to Clarke and Cornish, should a theorist come up with a decision model (i.e., theory) that applies to all crimes or a particular crime?

  •  What do Clarke and Cornish mean when they say decision models of crime need to be only “good enough”? In other words, good enough for what?

Section 3. Surveillance / Opportunity

Overview

  • According to the overview, theory is a statement about what?

  •  According to the overview, scientific theory is distinguished by its focus on what kind of “somethings”?
    According to the overview, something is empirical if you can do what to it?

  •  According to the overview, is the “something” that affects something else the independent or dependent variable?

  •  According to the overview, is the “something” affected by something else the independent or dependent variable?

  •  According to the overview, a theory is better if it is more valid and more of what else?

  •  According to the overview, is crime the independent or dependent variable in criminological theory?

  •  True or false (according to the overview): The vast majority of criminological theories make statements about why communities, individuals, and situations are more likely to have or commit crime.

  •  True or false (according to the overview): Criminological theories only focus on empirical somethings.

  •  True or false (according to the overview): Criminology is a discipline.

  •  According to the overview, the current section of the course focuses on which discipline(s)?

  •  True or false (according to the overview): Bentham argues that a building’s architecture affects what people do.

  •  According to the overview, what words are synonymous with inspection?

  •  According to the overview, what is the purpose of inspecting?

  •  True or false (according to the overview): The Panopticon’s design is only useful for controlling prisoners.

  •  True or false (according to the overview): Panopticism is a type of power now ubiquitous in society.

  •  According to the overview, is Clarke’s article most focused on reducing crime in communities, individuals, or situations?

  •  According to the overview, the theoretical basis for situational crime prevention are what two theories?

  •  According to the overview, does Bentham’s Panopticon most closely reflect the community-, individual-, or situational-level of analysis?

  •  According to the overview, does Foucault’s work most closely reflect the community-, individual-, or situational-level of analysis?

  •  According to the overview, what is/are the dependent variable of the theories examined in this section?

  •  According to the overview, what is/are the independent variable of the theories examined in this section?

  •  According to the overview, there is more crime in a community, in a situation, or committed by a person if there is what?

  •  True or false (according to the overview): Rational choice theory is only used to at the community- and individual-level of analysis.

 BENTHAM. PANOPTICON

  •  Where was Bentham when he wrote these letters?

  •  What family member of Bentham came up with the architectural design?

  •  Bentham thinks the architectural design will be useful for controlling inmates and who else?

  •  Bentham thinks the architectural design will be useful for any building in which what is important?

  •  According to Bentham, what is the next best thing to nonstop inspection?

  •  True or false (according to Bentham): The architectural design is square.

  •  True or false (according to Bentham): The prisoners are in solitary confinement.

  •  A “warden” is most synonymous with what role in Bentham’s prison?

  •  According to Bentham, how will the prison get light?

  •  True or false (according to Bentham): The prisoners will be able to see if they are being watched.

  •  According to Bentham, why should a list be made of a prisoner’s infractions before punishing any one offense?

  •  According to Bentham, who will live with the chief inspector in the prison lodge?

  •  According to Bentham, who else will the inspector watch from the lodge?

  •  According to Bentham, why will his prison require fewer employees?

  •  True or false: Bentham thinks it is a bad thing to have unparalleled amounts of control inside his prison.

  •  True or false: Bentham thinks a problem with his prison is it will result in a lot of illness.

  •  According to Bentham, who will be allowed inside the prison he envisions?

  •  According to Bentham, what type of prison administration would not want their prison open to the public?

 FOUCAULT. DISCIPLINE & PUNISH

  • Foucault’s work begins by describing measures taken when what first appeared in a town?

  •  According to Foucault, what substance was poured around the rooms in which people had been quarantined?

  •  With respect to the plague, what actions does Foucault describe as constituting a “compact model of the disciplinary mechanism”?

  •  According to Foucault, what gave rise to disciplinary projects?

  •  According to Foucault, rituals of exclusion called for binary divisions between people, whereas disciplinary projects called for what?

  •  According to Foucault, is Bentham’s Panopticon the architectural figure of discipline or exclusion?

  •  According to Foucault, the panoptic mechanism arranges spatial unities that make it possible to do what?

  •  According to Foucault, the major effect of the Panopticon was to induce what in the inmate?

  •  According to Foucault, the power of an inspector to see inmates without himself being seen is an “important mechanism” that does what two things?

  •  According to Foucault, the Panopticon also does the work of a naturalist in what way?

  •  True or false (according to Foucault): The Panopticon is an unprivileged place for experiments on men and for analyzing with complete certainty the transformation that may be obtained from them.

  •  In each of the Panopticon’s applications, according to Foucault, in what ways does it make possible to perfect the exercise of power?

  •  According to Foucault, for what reason does the increase in power afforded by the Panopticon have no risk of degenerating into tyranny?

  •  According to Foucault, panopticism is the general principle of a new ‘political anatomy’ whose object and end are what?

  •  According to Foucault, is panopticism associated with the image of discipline as a blockade or a mechanism?

  •  According to Foucault, the discipline-mechanism is a functional mechanism that improves the exercise of power by making it what?

  •  According to Foucault, the extension of the discipline-mechanism into all of society involved what three changes/processes? (Hint: these are italicized and found over several pages, though you need to know what the italicized parts mean, which you can only figure out from reading those sections.)

  •  True or false (according to Foucault): Discipline is a type of power.

  •  Foucault writes that one can speak of the formation of a disciplinary society as a movement that stretches from the enclosed disciplines to what?

  •  According to Bentham, the formation of the disciplinary society is connected with what three broad historical processes? (Hint: these are numbered and found over several pages, though all are mentioned in a single sentence. But to know what they mean, you’ll have to read the pages)

 CLARKE. SITUATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION

  •  According to Clarke, what are the key parts of how “situational prevention” is defined?

  •  In the article’s opening paragraph, Clarke lists a bunch of measures used to prevent crime, such as target hardening. Then at the opening of the “Theoretical Background” section, he specifies that those measures share what purpose?

  •  Clarke provides a scientific framework for some practical and commonsense thinking about how to deal with crime. What are the framework’s three components? (Hint: the answer is found across sections.)

  •  According to Clarke, the development of situational prevention was stimulated by the criminological research department of what country?

  •  According to Clarke, what two strands of policy research in the United States preceded situational prevention by a few years?

  •  According to Clarke, which reading from this course’s section on rational choice theory most directly guides situational prevention efforts?

  •  True or false (according to Clarke): Involvement decisions are different from event decisions in that the latter are frequently longer processes.

  •  According to Clarke, the routine activity approach states that what three minimal elements are necessary for direct-contract predatory crime:

  •  According to Clarke, routine activity theory has its intellectual roots in what discipline?

  •  What is the first tenant of lifestyle theory mentioned by Clarke?

  •  According to Clarke, what two theories attracted serious scholarly attention to situational prevention?

  •  According to the model outlined by Clarke, what are the three parts of the crime opportunity structure?

  •  According to the model outlined by Clarke, the crime opportunity structure is directly affected by what two things?

  •  According to the model outlined by Clarke, the factors affecting the crime opportunity structure are affected by what other structure?

  •  What two answers does Clarke give to the question of “why not focus preventive effort at the socioeconomic structure level”?

  •  What answer does Clarke give to the question of “rather than attempting to manipulate the opportunity structure, might it not be more efficient to simply raise the risks of offending by heavier punishments”?

  •  According to Clarke, what are four broad techniques of “increasing the effort” involved in committing crime? (Hint: one of them is target hardening.)

  •  According to Clarke, what are four broad techniques of “increasing the risks” involved in committing crime? (Hint: one of them is entry/exit screening.)

  •  According to Clarke, what are four broad techniques of “reducing the reward” involved in committing crime? (Hint: one of them is target removal.)

  •  Under the dispositional assumptions of traditional criminological theory, writes Clarke, situational variables “merely” do what?

  •  According to Clarke, crime displacement is not inevitable if what?

  •  True or false (according to Clarke): Situational prevention is only likely to displace crime to other places, not reduce it in other places.

  •  True or false (according to Clarke): Both “The Left” and “The Right” have criticisms of situational crime prevention.

  •  True or false (according to Clarke): Situational crime prevention cannot be undertaken by the private sector because crime control is the sole responsibility of the government.

 Section 4. Biology

Overview

  • According to the overview, theory is a statement about what?

  •  According to the overview, scientific theory is distinguished by its focus on what kind of “somethings”?
    According to the overview, something is empirical if you can do what to it?

  •  According to the overview, is the “something” that affects something else the independent or dependent variable?

  •  According to the overview, is the “something” affected by something else the independent or dependent variable?

  •  According to the overview, a theory is better if it is more valid and more of what else?

  •  According to the overview, is crime the independent or dependent variable in criminological theory?

  •  True or false (according to the overview): The vast majority of criminological theories make statements about why communities, individuals, and situations are more likely to have or commit crime.

  •  True or false (according to the overview): Criminological theories only focus on empirical somethings.

  •  True or false (according to the overview): Criminology is a discipline.

  •  According to the overview, the current section of the course focuses on which discipline(s)?

  •  True or false (according to the overview): All criminologists consider Lombroso to be the father of criminology.

  •  According to the overview, Lombroso and other biology-focused criminologists focus on what level of analysis: community, individual, or situational?

  •  According to the overview, what word does Lombroso use synonymously with “genetic throwback”?

  •  According to the overview, Gould’s Mismeasure of Man does what with respect to Lombroso’s work?

  •  True or false (according to the overview): The biological approach to criminology has not changed much since Lombroso.

  •  True or false (according to the overview): The Glenn and Raine article – like all good biology articles – avoids discussing how to reduce crime in light of biological factors because doing so would be unethical.

  •  According to the overview, what is/are the dependent variable of the theories examined in this section?

  •  According to the overview, what is/are the independent variable of the theories examined in this section?

  •  True or false (according to the overview): All biological factors are pro-crime.

 LOMBROSO. CRIMINAL MAN

  •  What does Cesare Lombroso say (in the Introduction) are the two fundamental ideas in his studies?

  •  When studying soldiers, what characteristic did Cesare Lombroso notice as distinguishing honest ones from vicious ones?

  •  Early on in his criminological career, Cesare Lombroso was anxious to apply the experimental method to the study of what three groups?

  •  Upon doing an autopsy of a famous criminal, Cesare Lombroso had what revelation at the sight of the skull? In other words, he came to see criminals as what?

  •  According to Cesare Lombroso, which nation gave a “warm and sympathetic” reception to his type of research?

  •  According to Gina Lombroso, Classical School criminologists focus on offenses because they assume what about (almost all) criminals?

  •  According to Gina Lombroso, Positivist School criminologists focus on criminals because they assume what about them?

  •  According to Gina Lombroso, the span of criminals’ arms relative to their height resembles what kind of animal?

  •  According to Gina Lombroso, to say that criminals are “atavistic” means they have the physical, psychic and functional qualities of who or what?

  •  According to Gina Lombroso, her father and his disciplines showed that in addition to atavism, what other two factors make people a criminal?

  •  According to Gina Lombroso, “born criminals” make up about what fraction of all offenders?

  •  Gina Lombroso reviews a variety of body parts that are different for born criminals. For instance, she starts with physical anomalies of “The Head.” What are the other broad categories she reviews? (Hint: the answers are found over several pages.)

  •  Gina Lombroso reviews a variety of sensory and functional areas that distinguish the born criminal as different. For instance, she starts with those of “General Sensibility.” What are the other broad categories she reviews? (Hint: the answers are found over several pages.)

  •  Gina Lombroso reviews a variety of psychological considerations that show the born criminal is different. For instance, she starts with those of “Natural Affections.” What are the other broad categories she reviews? (Hint: the answers are found over several pages, and continue within the “Moral Sense” section.)

  •  According to Gina Lombroso, adult criminals (not minors) are how many times more likely to be tattooed than normal persons? (Hint: you’re gonna have to do math to know the answer.)

  •  True or false (according to Gina Lombroso), crime is always the result of degeneration and atavism?

 GOULD. THE MISMEASURE OF MAN

  • According to Gould, the concept of what transformed human thought during the 19th century?

  •  According to Gould, which widely known fictional character is based directly on Lombroso’s idea of a born criminal? (Hint: The answers is implied in the body of the text but also made explicit in a footnote.)

  •  True or false (according to Gould): Lombroso was the first person to claim that crime is hereditary.

  •  According to Gould’s review of Lombroso, criminal behavior can arise in normal men, but we know if someone is a born criminal based on what?

  •  According to Gould, Lombroso devoted the first part of his major work to what topic?

  •  According to Gould, Lombroso considered the born criminal to be like animals and what two “inferior groups”?

  •  According to Gould, Lombroso’s anatomical stigmata were neither pathologies nor discontinuous variations, but rather what?

  •  True or false (according to Gould): Normal variation within a population is the same biological phenomenon as differences in average values between populations.

  •  True or false: According to Gould, Lombroso’s argument was scientifically valid.

  •  According to Gould, until World War I, there was a Criminal Anthropology conference held every how many years?

  •  According to Gould, what is the most potentially dubious consequence of Lombroso’s theory?

  •  True or false (according to Gould): We know that criminal stigmata was important criteria for judgment in many criminal trails.

  •  True or false (according to Gould): The liberal nature of judges and lawyers limited Lombroso’s influence in courts.

  •  True or false (according to Gould): Criminal anthropologists were against the death penalty because they thought criminality was inborn.

  •  According to Gould, criminal anthropologists preferred what means other than death for ridding society of its born criminals?

  •  True or false (according to Gould): Lombrosian criminologists tended more toward conservative than liberal ideologies.

  •  According to Gould, did Lombroso think that punishment should “fit the crime” or “fit the criminal”?

  •  True or false (according to Gould): Our modern system of parole, early release, and indeterminate sentencing stems in part from Lombroso’s campaign for differential treatment of born and occasional criminals.

  •  According to Gould, what chromosomal abnormality was considered a potential explanation of aggression?

GLENN & RAINE. NEUROCRIMINOLOGY

According to Glenn and Raine, well over how many behavioral genetics studies have converged on the conclusion that antisocial and aggressive behavior have a considerable genetic basis?

 According to Glenn and Raine, meta-analyses estimate that about what percent of antisocial and aggressive behavior is attributable to genetics?

 True or false (according to Glenn and Raine): The effects of heritable influences, with no exceptions, are broadly consistent across gender and ethnicity.

 According to Glenn and Raine, what kind of studies in particular have the advantage of being able to truly separate genetic from environmental factors?

 True or false (according to Glenn and Raine): The contribution of any single gene to antisocial and aggressive behavior is likely to be quite small.

 True or false (according to Glenn and Raine): Epigenetics research substantiates the traditional arguments of biological determinism.

 According to Glenn and Raine, what factors during prenatal and perinatal period may increase the probability that a young infant will develop antisocial and aggressive behavior?

 According to Glenn and Raine, what two hormones have been the most intensively researched in relation to antisocial behavior?

 According to Glenn and Raine, what is the best-replicated correlate of human aggression as pertains to neurotransmitter systems?

 According to Glenn and Raine, what is the best-replicated biological correlate of human aggression?

 According to Glenn and Raine, what is the best-replicated brain imaging correlate of antisocial and violent behavior?

 True or false (according to Glenn and Raine): Most brain imaging studies are essentially correlational and cross-sectional, not longitudinal.

 True or false (according to Glenn and Raine): Incurring brain damage increases the risk of criminal behavior.

 According to Glenn and Raine, neurocriminology interfaces with the judicial system at what three main levels?

 True or false (according to Glenn and Raine): Neurocriminology is likely to result in a radical or swift shift in the operation of the criminal justice system in the very near future.

 True or false (according to Glenn and Raine): As the law currently stands in the U.S., the documentation of neurobiological risk factors render that individual as lacking responsibility.

 According to Glenn and Raine, for what reasons have methods used to predict future re-offending in about-to-be-released prisoners not incorporated neurobiological factors?

 True or false (according to Glenn and Raine): Medication, nutritional supplements, and brain manipulation may be useful to reducing crime.

 Section 5. Self-Control

  • According to the overview, theory is a statement about what?

  •  According to the overview, scientific theory is distinguished by its focus on what kind of “somethings”?
    According to the overview, something is empirical if you can do what to it?

  •  According to the overview, is the “something” that affects something else the independent or dependent variable?

  •  According to the overview, is the “something” affected by something else the independent or dependent variable?

  •  According to the overview, a theory is better if it is more valid and more of what else?

  •  According to the overview, is crime the independent or dependent variable in criminological theory?

  •  True or false (according to the overview): The vast majority of criminological theories make statements about why communities, individuals, and situations are more likely to have or commit crime.

  •  True or false (according to the overview): Criminological theories only focus on empirical somethings.

  •  True or false (according to the overview): Criminology is a discipline.

  •  According to the overview, the current section of the course focuses on which discipline(s)?

  •  True or false (according to the overview): In conventional criminology, the psychological concept to receive the most attention in recent years is self-control.

  •  According to the overview’s information on Elias, the civilizing process involves a change in what?

  •  According to the overview’s information on Elias, has the amount of self-control people have decreased, stayed the same, or increased over time?

  •  

  • According to the overview’s information on Gottfredson and Hirschi, someone has low self-control if they are what?

  •  According to the overview, Gottfredson and Hirschi’s self-control theory only explains crime, no other acts.

  •  According to the overview, the Pinker read does a nice job of explaining what?

  •  According to the overview, what is/are the dependent variable of the theories examined in this section?

  •  According to the overview, what is/are the independent variable of the theories examined in this section?

 ELIAS. THE CIVILIZING PROCESS

 According to Elias, the civilizing process is a change in what?

  •  True or false: The civilizing process was brought about rationally through purposive education of groups.

  •  Is the last sentence true or false (all of the preceding ones are true)? Elias writes that “social functions have become more and more differentiated under the pressure of competition.” Then he goes on to say that if there are more functions, or “roles” in a society, people increasingly depend on each other. In turn, this mutual dependence makes people more attune to how they act toward others. Elias goes on to suggest (in the same paragraph), therefore, that over time, people require more and more self-control to get through life, which reduces all sorts of so-called uncivilized behavior over time.

  •  In a modern society, according to Elias, the “chief danger” that people represent for others results from someone losing what?

  •  True or false (according to Elias): As the social fabric grows more intricate, the sociogenic apparatus of individual self-control also becomes more differentiated, more all-round and more stable.

  •  True or false (according to Elias): When a monopoly of force is formed, by which he means stable governments responsible for criminal justice, the result is violent social spaces in which people are normally at risk of being attacked.

  •  True or false (according to Elias): Societies without a stable monopoly of force, by which he means stable governments responsible for criminal justice, are always societies in which the division of functions is relatively slight and the chains of action binding individuals together are comparatively short.

  •  Based on what, according to Elias, are the more permanent compulsions of peaceful functions (as compared to the sway of constant feuds and wars)?

  •  True or false (according to Elias): Through the formation of monopolies of force, the threat which one person represents for another is subject to stricter control and becomes more calculable.

  •  True or false (according to Elias): The monopolization of physical violence imposes on people a greater or lesser degree of self-control.

  •  True or false (according to Elias): In earlier eras, such as medieval times, people had about the same amount control over their emotions as we do now.

  •  According to Elias, a “balance” in what distinguishes whether a civilizing process is considered successful or unsuccessful?

GOTTFREDSON & HIRSCHI. A GENERAL THEORY OF CRIME

  •  According to Gottfredson and Hirschi, what is “criminality”?

  •  How do Gottfredson and Hirschi first define “self-control”?

  •  According to Gottfredson and Hirschi, classical theory is a theory of social or external control that lacks an explicit idea of what?

  •  Gottfredson and Hirschi assume that the nature of self-control can be derived directly from the nature of crime. From what characteristic of crime do they infer that self-control involves delaying gratification?

  •  Gottfredson and Hirschi assume that the nature of self-control can be derived directly from the nature of crime. From what characteristic of crime do they infer that self-control involves diligence?

  •  Gottfredson and Hirschi assume that the nature of self-control can be derived directly from the nature of crime. From what characteristic of crime do they infer that self-control involves caution?

  •  Gottfredson and Hirschi assume that the nature of self-control can be derived directly from the nature of crime. From what characteristic of crime do they infer that self-control involves maintaining long-term commitments?

  •  Gottfredson and Hirschi assume that the nature of self-control can be derived directly from the nature of crime. From what characteristic of crime do they infer that self-control involves possessing and valuing cognitive skills?

  •  Gottfredson and Hirschi assume that the nature of self-control can be derived directly from the nature of crime. From what characteristic of crime do they infer that self-control involves caring about others?

  •  Gottfredson and Hirschi theorize that because crime involves the pursuit of immediate pleasure, people lacking self-control will also do what?

  •  According to Gottfredson and Hirschi, children are born with a greater or lesser ability to have self-control. What do the authors say is the other major factor affecting how much self-control children have?

  •  According to Gottfredson and Hirschi, what are the minimum conditions necessary to teach a child self-control? In other words, what must someone do to/with that child?

  •  True or false (according to Gottfredson and Hirschi): People lacking self-control are good at socializing their children well.

  •  According to Gottfredson and Hirschi, compared to the family, the school has what advantages as a socializing institution?

  •  True or false (according to Gottfredson and Hirschi): In contemporary American society, the school has a difficult time teaching self-control to children.

PINKER. THE BETTER ANGELS OF OUR NATURE

  •  According to Pinker, the ubiquity of homicide fantasies shows what?

  •  According to Pinker, homicide has dropped how much between medieval and modern Europe?

  •  According to Pinker, what is the difference between selfishness and self-indulgence?

  •  According to Pinker, self-indulgence becomes irrational when we do what?

  •  According to Pinker, does the phenomenon known as myopic discounting suggest that when two awards are far away, people will pick a small reward that comes sooner or a large reward that comes later?

  •  True or false (according to Pinker): We can explain self-control as a tug of war between the limbic system and the frontal lobes.

  •  According to Pinker, which part of the brain is most involved in self-control?

  •  According to Pinker, which part of the brain is most involved in emotionally driven self-control, i.e. apprehension?

  •  Pinker mentions a study by Raine that found violence arises from what?

  •  True or false (according to Pinker): Children who chose getting two marshmallows later, instead of one now, wind up having higher SAT scores.

  •  According to Pinker, research finds that people with low self-control are more likely to perpetrate acts of violence.

  •  According to Pinker, people commit less crime after adolescence and early adulthood for what reason?

  •  According to Pinker, at what point in a person’s life is the wiring of the prefrontal cortex complete?

  •  According to Pinker, the rise in what two things can overtake the rise in self-control that happens during adolescence?

  •  True or false (according to Pinker): It is likely that either self-control OR intelligence affects crime, not both.

  •  True or false (according to Pinker): Experiments show that like muscles, self-control can become fatigued.

  •  True or false (according to Pinker): The research supports Elias’ conjecture that violence may be caused by weakness in an overarching neural mechanism of self-control

  •  What does Pinker mention as ways to improve self-control or reduce the effect of low self-control? (Hint: The answer is found over several pages, but summarizes in a single line.)

 Section 6. Anomie / Strain

Overview

  • According to the overview, theory is a statement about what?

  •  According to the overview, scientific theory is distinguished by its focus on what kind of “somethings”?

  •  According to the overview, something is empirical if you can do what to it?

  •  According to the overview, is the “something” that affects something else the independent or dependent variable?

  •  According to the overview, is the “something” affected by something else the independent or dependent variable?

  •  According to the overview, a theory is better if it is more valid and more of what else?

  •  According to the overview, is crime the independent or dependent variable in criminological theory?

  •  True or false (according to the overview): The vast majority of criminological theories make statements about why communities, individuals, and situations are more likely to have or commit crime.

  •  True or false (according to the overview): Criminological theories only focus on empirical somethings.

  •  True or false (according to the overview): Criminology is a discipline.

  •  According to the overview, who is considered the father of the sociological study of crime?

  •  According to the overview, anomie is defined as what?

  •  According to the overview, when a society has more anomie, is there less or more crime therein?

  •  According to the overview, when a person is more strained, does he or she commit more or less crime?

  •  According to the overview, is anomie primarily a community-, individual-, or situational-level trait?

  •  According to the overview, is strain primarily a community-, individual-, or situational-level trait?

  •  According to the overview, what is/are the dependent variable of the theories examined in this section?

  •  According to the overview, what is/are the independent variable of the theories examined in this section?

MERTON. SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND ANOMIE

  • True or false (according to Merton): Infringement of social codes, such as laws, is always an abnormal response.

  •  True or false (according to Merton): Every social group has moral or institutional regulation of permissible and required procedures for attaining goals.

  •  True or false (according to Merton): In every social group, there is a proportionate (i.e., equal) stress on goals and institutionally appropriate modes of attaining them.

  •  According to Merton, aberrant conduct may be viewed as a symptom of what?

  •  True or false (according to Merton): In some social groups, there are no regulatory codes governing behavior.

  •  Merton provides an analogy of winning “the right way” versus “at any cost” (my words, not his) by referring to what game(s)?

  •  According to Merton, fraud, corruption, etcetera become increasingly common when the emphasis on ‘what’ becomes divorced from ‘what’?

  •  According to Merton, does “innovation” involve accepting or eliminating culture goals and accepting or eliminating institutionalized means?

  •  According to Merton, does “ritualism” involve accepting or eliminating culture goals and accepting or eliminating institutionalized means?

  •  According to Merton, does “retreatism” involve accepting or eliminating culture goals and accepting or eliminating institutionalized means?

  •  True or false (according to Merton): Across all social situations, any given person only acts as a conformist, innovator, ritualist, retreater, or rebel; in other words, they entirely stick to one of those.

  •  According to Merton, which of these is most common in every society – conformist, innovator, ritualist, retreater, or rebel?

  •  According to Merton, which of these is least common in every society – conformist, innovator, ritualist, retreater, or rebel?

  •  True or false (according to Merton): All criminals are retreaters.

  •  According to Merton, whether a person becomes an innovator, ritualist, or rebel is determined by what?

  •  True or false (according to Merton): A high frequency of deviant behavior is simply generated by a lack of opportunity or poverty.

  •  True or false (according to Merton): Crime in the U.S. is caused, in part, by the egalitarian ideology that everyone can and should gain financial success.

  •  According to Merton, what doctrine becomes a guiding tenant for action in societies such as our own?

ROSENFELD & MESSNER. CRIME AND THE AMERICAN DREAM

  •  According to Figure 5.1 in the Rosenfeld and Messner article, which developed nation has the largest crime rate?

  •  True or false (according to Rosenfeld and Messner): White males in the U.S. have a higher rate of homicide than males in other developed nations.

  •  According to Rosenfeld and Messner, why have criminologists devoted relatively little attention to why the U.S. has comparatively high levels of serious criminal behavior?

  •  In summarizing Merton’s theory, Rosenfeld and Messner say that crime in America derives from what?

  •  According to Rosenfeld and Messner, what is the result of the interplay between the basic cultural commitments of the American Dream and the companion institutional arrangements?

  •  According to Rosenfeld and Messner, the individualistic bias in contemporary criminology has had what ironic consequence for anomie theory?

  •  How do Rosenfeld and Messner define the American Dream?

  •  According to Rosenfeld and Messner, the American Dream rests upon what value commitments?

  •  True or false (according to Rosenfeld and Messner): Culture should be thought of as an isolated variable that is wholly apart from social structure.

  •  How do Rosenfeld and Messner define institution?

  •  True or false (according to Rosenfeld and Messner): Social institutions are wholly distinct and independent.

  •  According to Rosenfeld and Messner, the American Dream has its underpinnings in what institution?

  •  According to Rosenfeld and Messner, which institution dominates American life?

  •  How do Rosenfeld and Messner define anomic normative order?

  •  According to Rosenfeld and Messner, what are the American Dream’s direct and indirect effects on crime?

AGNEW. FOUNDATIONS FOR A GENERAL STRAIN THEORY

  •  According to Agnew, strain, social control, and differential association theory are all sociological theories in what respect?

  •  According to Agnew, strain theory is distinguished from social control and social learning theory in its specification of what?

  •  True or false (according to Agnew): Strain theory focuses on negative relationships with others, whereas social control theory and learning theory focus on, respectively, the absence of relationships and positive relationships.

  •  True or false (according to Agnew): Strain theory focuses on pressure to engage in delinquency, whereas social control theory and learning theory focus on, respectively, freedom to engage in delinquency and viewing delinquency as desirable or at least justifiable.

  •  How does Agnew define negative relationships?

  •  According to Agnew, Merton focused on what type of negative relationships?

  •  According to Agnew, what is/are the MAJOR type/s of strain (i.e., negative relationships) that a person may experience?

  •  According to Agnew, what is/are the type/s of strain relating to the failure to achieve positively valued goals?

  •  According to Agnew, noxious stimuli may lead to delinquency as the adolescent tries to do what?

  •  According to Agnew, strain leads to emotions of disappointment, depression, and fear. Which of these does he think is most important for the purposes of the general strain theory?

  •  According to Agnew, adolescents subject to strain are predisposed to delinquency for what reason(s)?

  •  According to Agnew, research from the stress and equity literatures suggest that adverse events are more influential the extent that they are what?

  •  According to Agnew, what are the cognitive coping strategies for coping with adversity?

  •  According to Agnew, what are the major types of behavioral coping for handling adversity?

  •  According to Agnew, is illicit drug use a cognitive, behavioral, or emotional coping strategy for handling adversity?

  •  According to Agnew, what internal and external factors constrain (i.e., direct) people’s choice of adaptation(s)?

  •  According to Agnew, an adolescent’s disposition to engage in delinquent versus non-delinquent coping is a function (i.e., a matter of) what?

Section 7. Social Disorganization / Bond

Overview

  • According to the overview, theory is a statement about what?

  •  According to the overview, something is empirical if you can do what to it?

  •  According to the overview, is the “something” that affects something else the independent or dependent variable?

  •  According to the overview, is the “something” affected by something else the independent or dependent variable?

  •  According to the overview, a theory is better if it is more valid and more of what else?

  •  According to the overview, is crime the independent or dependent variable in criminological theory?

  • True or false (according to the overview): The vast majority of criminological theories make statements about why communities, individuals, and situations are more likely to have or commit crime.

  •  True or false (according to the overview): Criminological theories only focus on empirical somethings.

  •  True or false (according to the overview): Criminology is a discipline.

  •  According to the overview, the current section of the course focuses on which discipline(s)? (To be nice, I’m telling you not to mark ecological.)

  •  According to the overview, are Shaw and McKay as well as Sampson’s theories focused on the community-, individual-, or situational-level of analysis?

  • According to the overview, are Hirschi’s theories focused on the community-, individual-, or situational-level of analysis?

  •  According to the overview, what do Shaw and McKay theorize as the independent variable affecting crime?

  •  According to the overview, what does Sampson theorize as the independent variable affecting crime?

  •  According to the overview, what does Hirschi theorize as the independent variable affecting crime?

  •  According to the overview, what independent variable do Sampson and Laub add to Hirschi’s theory?

  •  True or false (according to the overview): All of the theories in this section see people as passive participants, not active ones, in what happens in their life.

  •  True or false: The Sampson who came up with collective efficacy theory is the same one who came up with the age-graded theory.

SHAW & MCKAY. JUVENILE DELINQUENCY AND URBAN AREAS

  • According to Shaw and McKay, the more subtle differences between types of communities in Chicago may be encompassed within what general proposition?

  •  According to Shaw and McKay, delinquency is an impelling force (in areas with higher rates of delinquents) because of what?

  •  According to Shaw and McKay, compared to children living in areas with high or middle economic status, those living in areas of low economic status are most exposed to what?

  •  According to Shaw and McKay, boys knowing about crime (e.g., location of illegal institutions, etc.) is evidence that there are diverse value systems in low economic status neighborhoods. What is the other type of evidence they mention?

  •  According to Shaw and McKay, in high crime and delinquency areas, what do successive generations of boys transmit in the same way that language and other social forms are transmitted (i.e., taught)?

  •  According to Shaw and McKay, the cumulative effect of the transmission of tradition is seen in what two kinds of data that reveal what, respectively? (I.e., what are the “studies” or types of data, and what do they show?)

  •  According to Shaw and McKay, how boys are inducted into unconventional behavior is revealed from case studies. These boys’ own life-stories reveal what, exactly?

  •  In the paragraph prior to the section titled, “Differential Social Organization”, Shaw and McKay argue that studies indicate what?

  •  According to Shaw and McKay, how/why are families in high-rate delinquency areas ineffective at opposing and reducing crime by children? (Hint: The answers are found across multiple pages.)

  •  According to Shaw and McKay, Thomas and Znaniecki suggest that effectively organized communities have what traits?

  •  True or false (according to Shaw and McKay): Economic segregation in and of itself furnishes an adequate explanation for delinquency.

  •  According to Shaw and McKay, what are the briefly summarized tenants of their general theoretical framework?

  •  According to Shaw and McKay, are black areas in the city worse off, equally bad as, or better off than white areas with rates of delinquents?

  •  True or false (according to Shaw and McKay): Communities with high rates of delinquency do not have social and economic characteristics that differentiate them from communities with low rate.

  •  According to Shaw and McKay, what emphatically supports the conclusion that delinquency-producing factors are inherent in the community?

  •  According to Shaw and McKay, the available data suggests that local variations in the conduct of children reflect differences in what?

  •  According to Shaw and McKay, what are the implications of their theory for how to reduce delinquency in large American cities?

 SAMPSON. COLLECTIVE EFFICACY THEORY

  •  According to Sampson, social disorganization emerged out of what “School”?

  •  According to Sampson, how is social disorganization theoretically defined?

  •  According to Sampson, the tradition of community-level research in criminology was revitalized by what idea?

  •  According to Sampson, how did Bursik articulate the connection of social disorganization to social capital?

  •  True or false (according to Sampson): Dense social ties almost always reduce crime.

  •  According to Sampson, collective efficacy unites what two concepts?

  •  True or false (according to Sampson): Social networks foster the conditions under which collective efficacy flourishes and are sufficient for the exercise of control.

  •  According to Sampson, the first study to test collective efficacy theory asked survey participants what questions to measure shared expectations about social control?

  •  According to Sampson, the first study to test collective efficacy theory asked survey participants what questions to measure social cohesion/trust?

  •  According to Figure 5.1 in the Sampson article, more concentrated poverty and residential instability lead to what? (Hint: In the figure, a plus sign means the variable on the left increases the variable on the right, whereas a minus sign means the variable on the left decreases the variable on the right.)

  •  According to Figure 5.1 in the Sampson article, denser social ties lead to what?

  •  According to Figure 5.1 in the Sampson article, greater organizational infrastructure leads to what?

HIRSCHI. CAUSES OF DELINQUENCY

  •  According to Hirschi, control theories assume what?

  •  According to Hirschi, the essence of internalization of norms, conscience and superego lies in what? In other words, it reflects what aspect of the social bond?

  •  According to Hirschi, when a person considers whether to commit crime, they consider whether doing so will risk losing what they already have (e.g., a job, partner). This reflects what aspect of the social bond?

  •  According to Hirschi, people who are busy doing legal things have less time to do illegal ones. This reflects what aspect of the social bond?

  •  True or false (according to Hirschi): Control theory assumes the existence of multiple common value systems within the society or group whose norms are being violated.

  •  According to Hirschi, people commit less crime if they think society’s rules are more valid. This reflects what aspect of the social bond?

  •  According to Hirschi, are people with a strong attachment to others more or less likely to have a strong commitment to achieve?

  •  According to Hirschi, are people with a strong commitment to succeed more or less involved in conventional activities?

  •  According to Hirschi, are people with a strong attachment to others more or less likely to have a strong belief in the validity of society’s rules?

  •  According to Hirschi, what question is control theory designed to answer?

SAMPSON & LAUB. A LIFE-COURSE VIEW OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF CRIME

  •  What is Sampson and Laub’s fundamental argument?

  •  What are Sampson and Laub’s mains points of disagreement with Moffitt (1993)?

  •  According to Sampson and Laub, does a man exhibit lower, similar, or higher rates of offending when married compared to when not married?

  •  In Sampson and Laub’s book Crime in the Making, what is the general organizing principle?

  •  According to Sampson and Laub, does a man exhibit lower, similar, or higher rates of offending when employed compared to when unemployed?

  •  True or false: A fundamental thesis of Sampson and Laub’s age-graded theory of informal control is that experiences in adolescence and adulthood can redirect criminal trajectories in a more positive or more negative manner.

  •  According to Sampson and Laub, does a man exhibit lower, similar, or higher rates of offending as he ages?

  •  According to Sampson and Laub, adult offenders commit less crime when they hit “turning points,” such as getting married or a job. What mechanisms do the authors say underlie how these new situations lead to desistance?

  •  According to Sampson and Laub, how is “human agency” defined?

  •  True of false (according to Sampson and Laub): Human agency is important for understanding both desistance from crime and persistence in crime.

  •  True of false (according to Sampson and Laub): Human agency and rational choice are the same thing.

 Section 8. Culture / Social Learning

Overview

  • According to the overview, theory is a statement about what?

  •  According to the overview, scientific theory is distinguished by its focus on what kind of “somethings”?

  •  According to the overview, something is empirical if you can do what to it?

  •  According to the overview, is the “something” that affects something else the independent or dependent variable?

  •  According to the overview, is the “something” affected by something else the independent or dependent variable?

  •  According to the overview, a theory is better if it is more valid and more of what else?

  •  According to the overview, is crime the independent or dependent variable in criminological theory?

  •  True or false (according to the overview): The vast majority of criminological theories make statements about why communities, individuals, and situations are more likely to have or commit crime.

  •  True or false (according to the overview): Criminological theories only focus on empirical somethings.

  •  True or false (according to the overview): Criminology is a discipline.

  •  According to the overview, Wolfgang and Ferracuti focus on what type of violence?

  •  According to the overview, Wolfgang and Ferracuti see what as crucial to how culture comes to influence what individuals actually do?

  •  According to the overview, the basic tenants of Sutherland’s theory more or less align with what people nowadays call what?

  •  According to the overview, is culture primarily a community-, individual-, or situational-level trait?

  •  According to the overview, is social learning primarily a community-, individual-, or situational-level trait?

  •  According to the overview, what is/are the dependent variable of the theories examined in this section?

  •  According to the overview, what is/are the independent variable of the theories examined in this section?

WOLFGANG. SUBCULTURE OF VIOLENCE

  •  True or false (according to Wolfgang and Ferracuti): The term subculture has an unambiguous meaning.

  •  According to Wolfgang and Ferracuti, Tylor’s definition of culture includes what?

  •  According to Wolfgang and Ferracuti, Kroeber and Parsons refer to culture and society as different, with the latter being defined as what?

  •  According to Wolfgang and Ferracuti, at what point did the concept of subculture become common in social science literature?

  •  According to Wolfgang and Ferracuti, what are basically the kinds of criminal homicide? (Hint: the answer is only for types in which the offender is considered culpable.)

  •  According to Wolfgang and Ferracuti, the psychoanalytic school thought of aggression as being caused by what?

  •  According to Wolfgang and Ferracuti, psychometric techniques paint a general picture of murderers having what personality characteristics?

  •  According to Wolfgang and Ferracuti, what provides the theoretical bridge between an individual’s violent behavior and his subcultural value allegiance?

  •  According to Wolfgang and Ferracuti, the notion of anomie as culture conflict suggests what?

  •  True or false (according to Wolfgang and Ferracuti): In a heterogeneous population, there are not differences in ideas and attitudes toward the use of violence.

  •  True or false (according to Wolfgang and Ferracuti): If violence is a common subcultural response to certain stimuli, penalties should exist (i.e., be observed) for not acting violently in those situations.

  •  True or false (according to Wolfgang and Ferracuti’s propositions for their subculture of violence thesis): A subculture can be totally different from or totally in conflict with the society of which it is a part.

  •  True or false (according to Wolfgang and Ferracuti’s propositions for their subculture of violence thesis): To establish the existence of a subculture of violence requires that the actors sharing in these basic value elements should express violence in all situations.

  •  True or false (according to Wolfgang and Ferracuti’s propositions for their subculture of violence thesis): The potential to resort or willingness to resort to violence in a variety of situations emphasizes the penetrating and diffusive character of this culture theme.

  •  True or false (according to Wolfgang and Ferracuti’s propositions for their subculture of violence thesis): The subcultural ethos of violence may be shared by all ages in a sub-society, but this ethos is most prominent in a limited age group, ranging from late adolescence to middle age.

  •  True or false (according to Wolfgang and Ferracuti’s propositions for their subculture of violence thesis): The norm is nonviolence.

  •  True or false (according to Wolfgang and Ferracuti’s propositions for their subculture of violence thesis): The development of favorable attitudes toward, and the use of, violence in a subculture usually involve learned behavior and a process of differential learning, association, or identification.

  •  True or false (according to Wolfgang and Ferracuti’s propositions for their subculture of violence thesis): The use of violence in a subculture is necessarily viewed as illicit conduct and the users therefore do have to deal with feelings of guilt about their aggression.

 ANDERSON. CODE OF THE STREETS

  •  According to Anderson, the inclination to violence in poor inner-city black communities springs from what circumstances?

  •  According to Anderson, what two orientations socially organize poor inner-city black communities?

  •  According to Anderson, the code of the streets amounts to what?

  •  True or false (according to Anderson): In poor inner-city black communities, even families with a decency orientation will encourage their children’s familiarity with the code of the streets.

  •  According to Anderson, what is at the heart of the code of the streets?

  •  True or false (according to Anderson): The code of the streets is a cultural adaptation to a profound lack of faith in the police and the judicial system.

  •  According to Anderson, decent families tend to accept what value system?

  •  True or false (according to Anderson): Street parents often show a lack of consideration for other people and have a rather superficial sense of family and community.

  •  According to Anderson, youths who emerge from street-oriented families but develop a decency orientation almost always learn those values in what settings?

  •  According to Anderson, by what time in life have people from poor inner-city black communities internalized the code of the streets or at least learned the need to comport themselves in accordance with its rules?

  •  True or false (according to Anderson): In poor inner-city black communities, fighting is a way of earning respect, and not avenging oneself loses respect.

  •  True or false (according to Anderson): In poor inner-city black communities, if a victim does not act the right way during a mugging and therefore gets killed, the robber may blame the victim for not following the code of the streets.

  •  According to Anderson, what are examples of showing “nerve” that gain respect in poor inner-city black communities?

  •  According to Anderson, what is a major difference between girls and boys in terms of violence?

  •  True or false (according to Anderson): Many street oriented boys are much more concerned about the threat of "justice" at the hands of a peer than at the hands of the police.

  •  True or false: Anderson refers to the code of the streets as an oppositional culture, not a subculture.

 SUTHERLAND. PRINCIPLES OF CRIMINOLOGY

  • According to Sutherland, criminology is a body of knowledge with what within its scope?

  •  According to Sutherland, experimentation is wasteful unless what?

  •  According to Sutherland, any scientific explanation consists of what?

  •  I know this is a confusing word choice (that’s a hint), but what does Sutherland refer to as a “genetic explanation” of criminal behavior? In other words, how does he define it?

  •  True or false according to Sutherland’s genetic explanation of criminal behavior: Criminal behavior is learned.

  •  True or false according to Sutherland’s genetic explanation of criminal behavior: Communication is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of criminal behavior.

  •  True or false according to Sutherland’s genetic explanation of criminal behavior: The principal part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs within groups of weak acquaintances.

  •  True or false according to Sutherland’s genetic explanation of criminal behavior: When criminal behavior is learned, the learning includes techniques of and motives for crime.

  •  True or false according to Sutherland’s genetic explanation of criminal behavior: The specific direction of motives and drives is learned irrespective of the legal codes.

  •  True or false according to Sutherland’s genetic explanation of criminal behavior: A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of law.

  •  True or false according to Sutherland’s genetic explanation of criminal behavior: Differential associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity.

  •  True or false according to Sutherland’s genetic explanation of criminal behavior: The process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anti-criminal patterns involves none of the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning.

  •  True or false according to Sutherland’s genetic explanation of criminal behavior: Criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and values, so it is explained by those general needs and values.

 AKERS. DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION/SOCIAL LEARNING

  •  According to Akers, Cressey revealed what major weakness(es) of Sutherland’s theory?

  •  According to the cultural deviance critique (reviewed by Akers), differential association/social learning theory rests on what inherently untenable assumptions?

  •  According to Akers (though also as read in the Sutherland excerpt), is differential association theory explicitly designed as a community-, individual-, or situational theory?

  •  True or false (according to Akers): Sutherland states that his theory rests on the assumptions of perfect socialization and no possibility of within-group deviance by individuals.

  •  True or false (according to Akers): Kornhauser and Hirschi provide an accurate portrayal of Sutherland’s theory.

  •  According to Akers, Sutherland probably meant what by “drives”?

  •  According to Akers’ social learning theory, definitions favorable to crime and delinquency are what (i.e., how are they defined)?

  •  According to Akers’ social learning theory, definitions favorable to crime and delinquency are learned through what?

  •  True or false: According to Akers’ social learning theory, people are only motivated to engage in criminal behavior based on their attitude toward it.

  •  True or false (according to Akers): Culture is unimportant in differential association/social learning theory.

  •  According to Akers, culture – or values, beliefs, and norms – is incorporated into differential association/social learning theory in the concepts of what?

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